[PD]’s guide to Dietary Requirements and Food Allergies.
Dietary Requirements Guide
Vegan / Veganism
The practice of abstaining from the consumption or use of animal products. Dietary vegans (or strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products, and other animal-derived substances.
Vegetarian / Vegetarianism
The practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and other animals).
There are variations of the diet as well:
- an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products.
- an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products.
- a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs.
Pescetarian / Pescetarianism
The practice of following a diet that includes fish or other seafood, but other animals. Most pescetarians maintain a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet with the addition of fish and shellfish, described as “fish but no other meat”.
Religious Restrictions Guide
Forbidden: None. Many people will not eat meat or fish however.
Forbidden: Meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Some people also avoid garlic, onions, alcohol, tea and coffee.
Forbidden: Emulsifiers and stabilizers of animal origin, gelatin, non-kosher meat, birds of prey and non-kosher fish such as prawns, shellfish, turbot skate and sturgeon.
Forbidden: Pork, lard or any pork substance, gelatin from animal source that is not halal, meat that is not slaughtered in the prescribed Islamic way, meat coming from a lawful animal which died before slaughter, blood, any food or drink with alcohol, all carnivorous animals and birds of prey and some non-halal additives.
Food Allergies Guide
Peanut allergies are very common and could cause a serious and possibly fatal reaction. If a guest has a peanut allergy you should avoid any kind of nut, even artificial. Also be mindful of dishes that may be cooked in peanut oil.
Some unexpected sources of peanuts:
- Egg rolls
- Hot sauce
- Salad dressing
- Specialty pizzas
- Some vegetarian food products advertised as meat substitutes
The term FODMAP is an acronym, derived from Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols and are found in the foods we eat. FODMAPs are sugars that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine.
Foods that need to be avoided in a low-FODMAP diet:
- Fructose – (eg. Apples, Watermelon, Asparagus, Fruit Juices, Honey, Barley, Rye, Wheat)
- Lactose – (eg. Custard, Milk, Ice-cream, Unripened Cheese, Ricotta, Yoghurt)
- GOS – (eg. Chickpeas, Legumes, Lentils, Pistachio Nuts, Cashews)
- POLYOLS – (eg. cauliflower, Mushrooms, Snow Peas)
Fructose is a type of sugar occurring naturally in fruit. They comprise a significant part of your daily sugar intake, and the human body normally has the ability to digest them. However, thousands of people suffer from fructose intolerance. This disorder hinder the ability to properly metabolise these sugars, which can adversely affect health and wellness.
Foods that need to be avoided:
- Fresh Fruits
- Other Fruits
- Some Vegetables
- Natural and Artificial Sweeteners
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop.
A milk allergy is different to lactose intolerance and is most common in infants and young children, although most will outgrow the allergy. Cow milk and products should be avoided, as reactions can be mild, such as hives, and sometimes life-threatening. It is also wise to avoid milk from all other animals.
Some unexpected sources of milk:
- Baked goods
- Luncheon meat, hot dogs, sausages
- Nondairy products (look for casein)
- Shellfish is sometimes dipped in milk to mask the odor
- Restaurants sometimes put butter on steaks for flavor
Egg allergies are the second most common childhood allergy and most children will outgrow it. Reactions can be mild, such as hives, and sometimes life-threatening. Eggs from other birds should also be avoided.
Some unexpected sources of eggs:
- Egg substitutes
- Pretzels are sometimes dipped in egg wash before they are salted
Coeliac Disease / Gluten Intolerance
Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, which are various proteins found in wheat and in other grains such as barley and rye.
Avoid products that contain any of the following:
- Contaminated oats
- Malt and malted barley (found in breakfast cereals, sauces, pickles, and confectionary)
Not to be confused with gluten intolerance, wheat allergies can be mild or life-threatening. Many people with wheat allergies can tolerate other grains, but it’s safe to stay away from them if you don’t know for sure.
Some unexpected sources of wheat:
- Cracker meal
- Glucose syrup
- Soy sauce
- Processed meat
- Salad dressing
- Ice cream
- Potato chips
- Hot dogs
- Imitation crabmeat
Soy is another common infant and childhood allergy that is often outgrown. Soy allergies can be mild or severe, though severe reactions are rare.
Some unexpected sources of soy:
- Canned tuna and meat
- High-protein energy bars and snacks
- Low-fat peanut butter
- Processed meats
- Canned broths and soups
People with fish allergies are most commonly allergic to salmon, tuna and halibut, although it is advised to avoid all fish. Many people who are allergic to finned fish are not allergic to shellfish. Be advised that fish protein can become airborne in the steam released while cooking.
Some unexpected sources of fish:
- Caesar dressing
- Worcestershire sauce
- Imitation fish or shellfish
- Barbecue sauce
- Caponata (Sicilian eggplant relish)
Shrimp, crab and lobster cause most shellfish allergies and 60% of people with this allergy experienced their first reaction as an adult. There are two kinds of shellfish: crustacean (shrimp, crab and lobster) and mollusks (clams, mussels, oysters and scallops). Most shellfish reactions tend to be severe. It is also best to avoid all shellfish if there is an allergic reaction to any of them.
Shellfish to avoid:
Mollusks shellfish to avoid:
- Sea cucumber
- Sea urchin
Please note: the above is only a guide and should be treated as such. For further information on allergies please consult a medical professional.